Glossary of Safeguarding Terms
This glossary is not an exhaustive list but reflects some of the key words or terms that could be used in all aspects of adult safeguarding work.
The list also includes details of relevant legislation.
Is taking action to help people say what they want, secure their rights, represent their interests and obtain services they need. Advocacy support can be provided informally by a family member or friend or formally through advocacy organisations. In East Sussex our advocacy service is provided by POhWER.
Care Act 2014
Came into force in April 2015 and significantly reformed the law relating to care and support for adults and carers. This legislation contains a number of provisions about safeguarding adults at risk from abuse or neglect. Clauses 42-45 of the Care Act provide the statutory framework for protecting adults from abuse and neglect.
Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE)
CSE is a form of sexual abuse, when a child or young person is exploited by being given gifts, drugs, money or status in exchange for performing sexual activities. Children and young people are often tricked into believing they are in a loving and consensual relationship by being groomed.
The Department of Education has produced CSE guidance to help practitioners who work with children and families to identify CSE and take appropriate action in response.
Coercion and Control
Controlling or coercive behaviour is a range of acts designed to make a person subordinate and / or dependent by isolating them from sources of support, depriving them of the means needed for independence, resistance and escape and regulating their everyday behaviour. Section 76 of the Serious Crime Act 2015 has created an offence in relation to coercive control within domestic abuse and sets out the importance of recognising the harm and cumulative impact on the victim caused by these patterns of behaviour.
The Research in Practice for Adults website contains a range of resources to support health and social care practitioners in working with situations involving coercive control.
County Lines is the police term for groups who are supplying drugs to suburban areas and market and coastal towns using dedicated mobile phone lines or ‘deal lines’. It can involve child criminal exploitation and using adults who are vulnerable to move drugs and money. More information on County Lines can be found in the Home Office guidance.
This is a form of crime in which drug dealers take over the home of a vulnerable person in order to use it as a base for criminal activity. Organised criminal groups are increasingly targeting adults with care and support needs in this way and the level of coercion and control involved with cuckooing often leaves the victims with little choice but to cooperate with the perpetrators.
DASH (Domestic Abuse, Stalking and Honour-Based Violence)
The DASH is a risk identification checklist used to help partner agencies in proactively identifying high risk domestic abuse cases.
The Safe Lives website has produced a checklist and quick start guidance about the DASH risk assessment.
Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS)
The DBS helps employers make safer recruitment decisions and prevent unsuitable people from working with vulnerable children and adults. Take a look at the associated link for further information about the DBS, including guidance on how to make referrals.
This government guidance provides further information relating to the role of the DBS, including how to make referrals.
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
FGM involves procedures that include the partial or total removal of the external female genital organs for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons. The practice is medically unnecessary, extremely painful and has serious health consequences, both at the time when the mutilation is carried out and in later life. FGM constitutes a form of abuse and violence against women and girls. In England and Wales, the practice is illegal under the Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003. More information on FGM can be found on the NHS website.
Is a term used to describe a marriage in which one or both of the parties are married without their consent or against their will. A forced marriage differs from an arranged marriage, in which both parties consent to the assistance of their parents or a third party in identifying a spouse. Forced marriage can be a particular risk for people with learning disabilities and people lacking capacity.
The government has produced multi-agency practice guidelines, which sets out the responsibilities of agencies involved in handling cases of forced marriage. It provides advice and support to front line practitioners who have responsibilities to safeguard children and protect adults from the abuses associated with forced marriage.
This is defined any crime that is perceived the victim, or other person, to be racist, homophobic, transphobic or due to a person’s religion, belief, gender identity or disability.
The Victim Support website contains more information about hate crime, including how to report it and how to access help and support.
This is a crime or incident which may have been committed to protect or defend the perceived ‘honour’ of the family and / or community. Women are predominantly (but not exclusively) the victims and the violence which is often committed with a degree of collusion from family members and / or the community. Many victims are so isolated and controlled that they are unable to contact the police or other organisations.
The Refuge website contains more information as to how to spot the signs of Honour Based Violence and who to contact for support.
Independent Mental Capacity Advocate (IMCA)
IMCA’s were established by the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and offer legal safeguards for people who
lack the capacity to make specific important decisions, such as regarding where to live or about serious medical treatment. IMCAs are mainly instructed to represent people who do not have access to suitable representation from their family or friends.
The IMCA service in East Sussex is provided by POhWER.
Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO)
In line with Care Act 2014 requirements, a framework and process has been established for how allegations against people in positions of trust, working with adults with care and support needs, should be responded to, in order to promote an individual’s suitability to work with adults. Within the Local Authority responsibility for this work lies with the LADO.
Mental Capacity Act (MCA) 2005 and Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards
The MCA sets out the legal framework for acting and making decisions on behalf of adults who lack the mental capacity to make particular decisions for themselves. The MCA Code of Practice provides guidance and information about how the Act works in practice and certain categories of people have a legal duty to have regard to it when working with or caring for adults who may lack capacity to make decisions for themselves.
The Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards Code of Practice helps explain how to identify when a person is, or is at risk of, being deprived of their liberty and how a deprivation of liberty may be avoided. It also explains the safeguards that have been put in place to ensure that deprivation of liberty, where it does occur, has a lawful basis.
Prevent is a key part of the government’s counter-terrorism strategy. Its aim is to stop people becoming terrorists, or supporting terrorism, including preventing the exploitation of susceptible people who are at risk of being drawn into violent extremism by radicalisation. The Prevent duty guidance provides more information regarding the strategy.
When someone has reasonable cause to suspect that an adult with care and support needs, who is unable to protect themselves because of those needs, is experiencing or is at risk of abuse or neglect.
The action taken or instigated by the local authority in response to a concern that abuse, or neglect may be taking place. An enquiry can range from a conversation with the adult to a more formal multi-agency plan or course of action.
Stalking and Harassment
Stalking refers to unwanted, persistent or obsessive attention by an individual or group towards another person causing fear, anxiety, emotional or psychological distress
Harassment can include repeated attempts to impose unwanted communications and contact upon a victim in a manner which causes fear or distress to the victim. Stalking and harassment behaviours may include nuisance telephone calls, sending excessive emails, following the person or spying on them and making death threats.